Providing the evidence for evidence-based medicine©

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2021 Annual Report - 31st Anniversary

The OUTCOMES RESEARCH Group was formed in 1990 at the University of California in San Francisco and subsequently became an institute when the group's administrative center moved to the University of Louisville in March of 2000. In 2005, OUTCOMES RESEARCH became a department at the Cleveland Clinic. After 15 years, the Department of OUTCOMES RESEARCH now includes 65 members at the Clinic, among about 190 academic investigators in twenty countries including the Austria, Canada, China, Ireland, Israel, Japan, China, and the United States. The Consortium is non-profit; its only goal is thus participation in high-quality research.

The Consortium has published more than 1,600 full papers and more than 80 editorials. The collaboration publishes a full paper every 3 days.

The Consortium is currently involved in about 150 clinical studies, including many large multi-center outcome trials. Funding for the Consortium’s funding is from various peer-reviewed granting agencies, and we also collaborate with companies that make innovative devices and drugs, often conducting major trials that lead to regulatory certification. The Consortium facilitates scientific exchange and collaboration necessary for technically complex outcomes studies involving hundreds or thousands of patients. Additional information is available at


Outcomes research seeks to understand the end results of particular health care practices and interventions. End results include effects that people experience and care about, such as change in the ability to function. In particular, for individuals with chronic conditions—where cure is not always possible—end results include quality of life as well as mortality. By linking the care people get to the outcomes they experience, outcomes research has become the key to developing better ways to monitor and improve the quality of care.

The general goal of the OUTCOMES RESEARCH Consortium is to evaluate inexpensive, low-risk interventions that are easy to implement yet likely to markedly improve outcome. For example, we have shown that simply maintaining intraoperative normothermia markedly reduces the risk of complications — and does so at trivial cost. A consequence of our work is that active intraoperative warming has become routine, whereas it was previously rare. Current focus areas include cardiovascular complications, postoperative delirium, and management of acute surgical pain.


Be the world’s leading clinical anesthesia research organization.


1. Publish more high-impact, peer-reviewed clinical research papers (quantified as number times impact) than any other anesthesia organization.

2. Recruit more extra-mural clinical research funding than any other anesthesia organization, with “clinical research” being defined as research conducted with human subjects.

3. Train clinical investigators at all levels.


Administrative Structure

Director, Daniel I. Sessler MD, ClevelandVice-director: Alparslan Turan MD. Cleveland

2021 Site Directors

Donal Buggy Dublin Ireland
Peter Szmuk Dallas USA
Yuguang Huang, Dong-Xin Wang Beijing China
Thomas Volk Homburg Germany
Colin Royse Melbourne Australia
Brian Ilfeld San Diego USA
PJ Devereaux Hamilton Canada
Barak Cohen Tel Aviv Israel
Ngai Liu Paris France
Bernd Saugel Hamburg Germany

General Members

Member City Country
Alaa A. Abd-Elsayed, M.D.MadisonUSA
Basem B. Abdelmalak, M.D.ClevelandUSA
Janet Adegboye, M.D.BaltimoreUSA
Sanchit Ahuja, M.D.DetroitUSA
Wael Ali Sakr Esa, M.D.ClevelandUSA
Federico Almonacid, MDClevelandUSA
Jorge Andres Araujo Duran, M.D.ClevelandUSA
Harendra Arora, M.D.Chapel HillUSA
Valentina Assenzo, M.D.Suresnes, ParisFrance
Abdulkadir Atim, M.D.AnkaraTurkey
Sabry Ayad, M.D.ClevelandUSA
Rovnat Babazade, M.D.GalvestonUSA
Gausan Bajracharya, M.D.ClevelandUSA
Omer Bakal, M.D.ClevelandUSA
Karsten Bartels, MD, PhD, MBAOmahaUSA
Allen Bashour, M.D.ClevelandUSA
Beatrice Beck-Schimmer, MDZurichSwitzerland
Sergio D. Bergese, M.D.Stony BrookUSA
Bruce M. Biccard, M.B.Ch.B., F.C.A., F.F.A.R.C.S.I., M.Med.Sc, Ph.D.Cape TownSouth Africa
Peter Biro, M.D.ZurichSwitzerland
Joshua A. Bloomstone, M.D., M.ScGlendaleUSA
Hagen Bomberg, M.D.ZurichSwitzerland
Mauro Bravo, M.D.ClevelandUSA
Jack Brooker, MDClevelandUSA
Donal J. Buggy, M.D., FRCPI, FRCACSI, FRCADublinIreland
Juan Cata, M.D.HoustonUSA
Praveen Chahar, M.D., F.C.A.R.C.S.I.ClevelandUSA
Athanasios F. Chalkias, MD, MSc, PhD, FESC, FAcadTM, FCPLarisaGreece
Surendrasingh S. Chhabada, M.D.ClevelandUSA
Anne CiprianiClevelandUSA
Barak Cohen, M.D.Tel AvivIsrael
Allen CollinsClevelandUSA
Jacek B. Cywinski, M.D.ClevelandUSA
Albert Dahan, MDLeidenNetherlands
Jarrod E. Dalton, Ph.D.ClevelandUSA
Gildasio S. De Oliveira Jr., M.D., M.S.C.I.ProvidenceUSA
Jagan Devarajan, MDClevelandUSA
Philip J. Devereaux, M.D., Ph.D.HamiltonCanada
Aimee DruryClevelandUSA
Lei Du, M.D.ChengduChina
Emmanuelle Duceppe, MD., Ph.D.MontrealCanada
Andra E. Duncan, M.D.ClevelandUSA
Ruthy Edry, M.D.HaifaIsrael
Proshad N. Efune, M.D.DallasUSA
Elyad Ekrami, MDClevelandUSA
Hesham Elsharkawy, M.D.ClevelandUSA
Okan Ermis, M.D.ClevelandUSA
Hani Essber, M.D.ClevelandUSA
Stephanie Ezeoke, BSClevelandUSA
Tibi Ezri, M.D.Tel AvivIsrael
Ehab S.A. Farag, M.D., F.R.C.A.ClevelandUSA
Tobias Fink, M.D.HomburgGermany
John J. Finneran IV, M.D.San DiegoUSA
Edith Fleischmann, M.D.ViennaAustria
Bela Fulesdi, M.D., Ph.D.DebrecenHungary
Rodney A. Gabriel, M.D.La JollaUSA
Marcelo Gama de Abreu, M.D., M.Sc., Ph.D., D.E.S.AClevelandUSA
Martin V. Grady, M.D.Mayfield HeightsUSA
Yanyan Han, MSClevelandUSA
Manal Hassan, M.D.Mayfield HeightsUSA
Yuguang Huang, M.D.BeijingChina
Tobias Hüppe, M.D., D.E.S.A., E.D.I.C.Homburg (Saar)Germany
Takehiko Ikeda, M.D.TokorozawaJapan
Brian M. Ilfeld, M.D., M.S.San DiegoUSA
Ilker Ince, MDErzurumTurkey
Steven R. Insler, D.O.ClevelandUSA
Daniela C. Ionescu, Ph.D., D.E.A.A.Cluj-NapocaRomania
Tadahiko Ishiyama, M.D., Ph.D.ChuoJapan
Pia Jaeger, M.D., Ph.D.CopenhagenDenmark
Jens-Ulrik S. Jensen, M.D., Ph.D.CopenhagenDenmark
Qiliang Jiang, M.D., Ph.D.ShanghaiChina
Roberta JohnsonClevelandUSA
Barbara Kabon, M.D.ViennaAustria
Tyler Karras, DOClevelandUSA
Roop Kaw, M.D.ClevelandUSA
Ashish K. Khanna, M.D., F.C.C.P., F.C.C.M.Wake ForestUSA
Sandeep Khanna, M.D.ClevelandUSA
Daniel Kim, M.D.HoustonUSA
Oliver Kimberger, M.D.ViennaAustria
Ryu Komatsu, M.D.BaltimoreUSA
Orkun Kopac, MDClevelandUSA
Sascha Kreuer, M.D.HomburgGermany
Priya A. Kumar, M.D.Chapel HillUSA
Andrea M. Kurz, M.D.ClevelandUSA
Esra Kutlu Yalcin, M.D.ClevelandUSA
Giovanni Landoni, M.D.MilanItaly
Kai Li, M.D., Ph.D.ClevelandUSA
Qian Li, M.D.ChengduChina
Jing Lin, M.D.ChengduChina
Liu Liu, M.A.ClevelandUSA
Ngai Liu, M.D., Ph.D.SuresnesFrance
Vladimir V. Lomivorotov, M.D., Ph.D.NovosibirskRussia
Dominik Lorenz, M.D.Homburg / SaarGermany
Anthony T. Machi, M.D.DallasUSA
Kamal Maheshwari, M.D., M.P.H.ClevelandUSA
Guangmei Mao, M.S.ClevelandUSA
Metty Markwei, B.S.BaltimoreUSA
Edward J. Mascha, Ph.D.ClevelandUSA
Takashi Matsukawa, M.D.ChuoJapan
Felix Maurer, B.S.HomburgGermany
Mark MettlerClevelandUSA
Scott A. Miller, M.D.Winston SalemUSA
Steven C. Minear, MDWestonUSA
Toshiki Mizobe, M.D., Ph.D.KyotoJapan
Mateo Montalvo, M.D.ClevelandUSA
Eassen Mu, M.D.BeijingChina
Carolin Müller, M.D.HomburgGermany
Lukas M. Müller-Wirtz, M.D.HomburgGermany
Yasuko Nagasaka, M.D., Ph.D.TokyoJapan
Yasufumi Nakajima, M.D., Ph.D.HirakataJapan
Rod Nault, M.S.ClevelandUSA
Tyng Yan Ng, M.B.B.S.Kuala LumpurMalaysia
Ben O’Brien, M.D., Ph.D., M.H.B.A., F.R.C.A., F.F.I.C.M.BerlinGermany
Beth O’Brien, B.S.ClevelandUSA
Detlef E.R. Obal, M.D., Ph.D., D.E.S.A.Palo AltoUSA
Ibrahim Onal, M.D.KonyaTurkey
Makoto Ozaki, M.D., Ph.D.TokyoJapan
Matt A. Pappas, M.D., M.P.H.ClevelandUSA
Marie-Odile Parat, Pharm.D., Ph.D.WoolloongabbaAustralia
Lijian Pei, M.D.BeijingChina
Silvia E. Perez-Protto, M.D., M.S.ClevelandUSA
Olga M. Plattner, M.D.ViennaAustria
Attila Podolyak, M.D.ClevelandUSA
Xuan Pu, M.S.ClevelandUSA
Yuwei Qiu, M.D.ShanghaiChina
Shobana Rajan, M.D.ClevelandUSA
Christian Reiterer, MDViennaAustria
David A. Rincon-Valenzuela, M.D., M.Sc.Bogot√°Colombia
Eva Rivas Ferreira, M.D.BarcelonaSpain
Efrain Riveros-Perez, M.D.AugustaUSA
Fabio A. Rodriguez-Patarroyo, M.D.ClevelandUSA
Reitze N. Rodseth, M.B.Ch.B., F.C.A., M.Med.DurbanSouth Africa
Julian V. Rossler, M.D.ZurichSwitzerland
Colin Royse, M.D.MelbourneAustralia
Kurt Ruetzler, M.D.ClevelandUSA
Remie Saab, M.D.ClevelandUSA
Leif Saager, M.D.GoettinghenGermany
Wael Saasouh, M.D.DetroitUSA
Ogena SaiedClevelandUSA
Vafi Salmasi, M.D.Palo AltoUSA
Ethan L. Sanford, M.D.DallasUSA
Bernd Saugel, M.D. E.D.I.C.HamburgGermany
Rita Saynhalath, M.D.DallasUSA
Yehoshua-Nadav Schacham, M.D.Ramat-GanIsrael
Eitan Scher Nemirovsky, MDClevelandUSA
Martin Schlapfer, M.D., M.Sc.ZurichSwitzerland
Marc Schmidt, M.D.ZurichSwitzerland
Gokhan Sertcakacilar, MDClevelandUSA
Daniel I. Sessler, M.D.ClevelandUSA
Karan Shaw, M.S.ClevelandUSA
Tetsuya Shimada, M.D.TokorozawaJapan
Alexis SkolarisClevelandUSA
Jeff W. Steiner, D.O.DallasUSA
Matthew W. Swisher, M.D., M.S.La JollaUSA
Wojciech Szczeklik, M.D., Ph.D.KrakowPoland
Peter Szmuk, M.D.DallasUSA
Abdullah S. Terkawi, M.D.CharlottesvilleUSA
Yasin Tire, MDClevelandUSA
Uchida Tokujiro, M.D., Ph.D.TokyoJapan
David Torres, M.D.SantiagoChile
Alparslan Turan, M.D.ClevelandUSA
Tamas Vegh, M.D., Ph.D.DebrecenHungary
Andrew Volio, D.O.ClevelandUSA
Thomas Volk, M.D.HomburgGermany
Anupama Wadhwa, M.D.San DiegoUSA
Michael WaltersClevelandUSA
Catherine I. Wang, M.D.BeijingChina
Dong Wang, M.S.ClevelandUSA
Dong-Xin Wang, M.D., Ph.D.BeijingChina
Jiayi Wang, MDShanghaiChina
Peiyan Wang, MSClevelandUSA
Marita Windpassinger, MDViennaAustria
Kiran Winemiller, BSClevelandUSA
Jason Wu, M.D.ShanghaiChina
Lexie Xu, M.D.BeijingChina
Ece Yamak Altinpulluk, M.D.IstanbulTurkey
Dongsheng Yang, M.S.ClevelandUSA
Jean-Pierre Yared, M.D.ClevelandUSA
Peter Yassa, MDClevelandUSA
Oguz Yilmaz, M.D.IzmirTurkey
Hai Yu, M.D.ChengduChina
Kan Zhang, M.D.ClevelandUSA
Xiaobao Zhang, M.D.LianyungangChina

Research Fellows

Chief Fellow: Esra Kutlu Yalcin, M.D. 2021-

Name Origin Dates Subsequent Position
Mauro Bravo, M.D.Venezuela2018-21Anesthesia residency, Cleveland Clinic
Hani Essber, M.D.Syria2019-
Ece Yamak Altinpulluk, M.D.Turkey2019-21Faculty, Cerrahpasa Medical School
Andrew Volio, D.O.United States2019-21Internal medicine residency, Ohio State
Ahmed Algharrash, M.D.Saudi Arabia2019-21Fellowship, McGill University
Omer Bakal, M.D.Turkey2019-
Kai Li, M.D.China2019-21Anesthesia Faculty, Japan-China Union Hosp
Esra Kutlu Yalcin, M.D.Turkey2019-
Fabio Rodriguez Patarryo, M.D.Colombia2019-
Ahmed Al Gharrash, M.D.Saudi Arabia2020-21Cardiac anesthesia fellowship, McGill Univ
Jorge Araujo Duran, M.D.Colombia2020-
Mateo Montalvo, M.D.Ecuador2020-
Sinem Sari Ozturk, M.D.Turkey2020-21
Momina Sharif Umair, M.D.Pakistan2020-21
Jeevan Shivakumar, M.D.India2020-21
Marc Schmidt, M.D.Switzerland2020-21Anesthesia faculty, University of Zurich
Tyler Karras, M.D.USA2021-22Anesthesia residency, Alleghany Health
Eitan Scher, M.D.Venezuela2021-
Jack Booker, M.D.Scotland2021-
Federico A. Cardenas, M.D.Colombia2021-
Elyad Ekrami, M.D.Iran2020-
Orkun Kopac, M.D.Turkey2021-
Gokhan Sertcacilar, M.D.Turkey2021-
Yasin Tire, M.D.Turkey2021-

Graduate and Medical Students (full year)

Name Origin Dates Subsequent Position
Alexis Skolaris, B.S.USA2019-21
David Lynn, B.S.USA2020-20Coordinator, Taussig Cancer Center
David Hoying, B.S.USA2020-21
Oguzalp Turan, M.S.USA2020-21Northeast Ohio Medical School
Stephanie Ezeoke, B.S.USA2021-
Kiran Winemiller, B.S.USA2021-22Case Western Dental School
Anne Cipraini, B.S.USA2021-22Case Western Medical School
Nicole Brown, B.S.USA2021-
Metabel Markwei, B.SUSA2020-21Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine
Rod Nault, B.S.USA2020-21Case Western Research School of Medicine

Honors and Awards

Name Honor Organization
Hesham ElsharkawyAssociate EditorReg Anesth Pain Management
Ashish KhannaVice-chair for researchWake Forest, Department of Anesthesia
Sanchit AhujaResident scholarFAER
Juan CataVice-chair for Clinical ResearchDept of Anesthesiology, MD Anderson
Jack Brooker2nd Place, resident researchOhio Society of Anesthesia
Brian IlfeldLabat AwardAmerican Society of Regional Anesthesia
Priya A. KumarOutstanding Service AwardUNC Anesthesiology
Athanasios ChalkiasAssociate EditorFrontiers in Medicine, Intensive Care & Anesthesiology

Consortium Research Awards

The Gladys Sessler Prize is an endowed award that is given yearly. All members of the OUTCOMES RESEARCH Consortium are eligible. This year’s award was to Prof. Kamal Maheshwari.

The Best Fellow Award is given to the Department of OUTCOMES RESEARCH fellow who is voted by the faculty to have performed at the very highest level. This year’s award was given to Mauro Bravo who was Chief Fellow before starting anesthesia residency at the Cleveland Clinic.


Contribution to the world’s literature

An article by Pagel and Hudetz (BMC Anesthesiology 12:5, 2012) evaluated anesthesia publication trends. In 2010, the last year they report, there were 665 clinical research articles published in the most influential anesthesia journals: Anesthesiology, the British Journal of Anaesthesia, Anesthesia & Analgesia, Anaesthesia and the European Journal of Anaesthesia. The Consortium publishes about 40 papers per year in the 14 journals they considered. The OUTCOMES RESEARCH Consortium thus publishes more than at least 4% of the clinical research in high-profile general anesthesia journals. Of note, the Consortium also publishes nearly as many papers in specialty journals ranging from pain to critical care to neuroscience, and in major multi-specialty journals. Overall, the Consortium publishes a full paper every 2.5 days.

Since inception, the Consortium has published more than 1,600 full papers and more than 80 editorials.

Links to PDF versions of most full papers.

Featured on journal covers this year

This year’s featured papers

Du YT, Li YW, Zhao BJ, Guo XY, Feng Y, Zuo MZ, Fu C, Zhou WJ, Li HJ, Liu YF, Cheng T, Mu DL, Zeng Y, Liu PF, Li Y, An HY, Zhu SN, Li XY, Li HJ, Wu YF, Wang DX, Sessler DI, Peking University Clinical Research Program Study Group: Long-term survival after combined epidural-general anesthesia or general anesthesia alone: Follow-up of a randomized trial. Anesthesiology 2021; 135: 233-45.

Background: Experimental and observational research suggests that combined epidural-general anesthesia may improve long-term survival after cancer surgery by reducing anesthetic and opioid consumption and by blunting surgery-related inflammation. This study therefore tested the primary hypothesis that combined epidural-general anesthesia improves long-term survival in elderly patients.

Methods: This article presents a long-term follow-up of patients enrolled in a previous trial conducted at five hospitals. Patients aged 60 to 90 yr and scheduled for major noncardiac thoracic and abdominal surgeries were randomly assigned to either combined epidural-general anesthesia with postoperative epidural analgesia or general anesthesia alone with postoperative intravenous analgesia. The primary outcome was overall postoperative survival. Secondary outcomes included cancer-specific, recurrence-free, and event-free survival.

Results: Among 1,802 patients who were enrolled and randomized in the underlying trial, 1,712 were included in the long-term analysis; 92% had surgery for cancer. The median follow-up duration was 66 months (interquartile range, 61 to 80). Among patients assigned to combined epidural-general anesthesia, 355 of 853 (42%) died compared with 326 of 859 (38%) deaths in patients assigned to general anesthesia alone: adjusted hazard ratio, 1.07; 95% CI, 0.92 to 1.24; P = 0.408. Cancer-specific survival was similar with combined epidural-general anesthesia (327 of 853 [38%]) and general anesthesia alone (292 of 859 [34%]): adjusted hazard ratio, 1.09; 95% CI, 0.93 to 1.28; P = 0.290. Recurrence-free survival was 401 of 853 [47%] for patients who had combined epidural-general anesthesia versus 389 of 859 [45%] with general anesthesia alone: adjusted hazard ratio, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.84 to 1.12; P = 0.692. Event-free survival was 466 of 853 [55%] in patients who had combined epidural-general anesthesia versus 450 of 859 [52%] for general anesthesia alone: adjusted hazard ratio, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.86 to 1.12; P = 0.815.

Conclusions: In elderly patients having major thoracic and abdominal surgery, combined epidural-general anesthesia with epidural analgesia did not improve overall or cancer-specific long-term mortality. Nor did epidural analgesia improve recurrence-free survival. Either approach can therefore reasonably be selected based on patient and clinician preference.

Published Full Papers and editorials

Abdelmalak BB, Doyle DJ: Updates and controversies in anesthesia for advanced interventional pulmonology procedures. Curr Opin Anaesthesiol 2021; 34: 455-63

2. Aghamelu O, Buggy P, Smith G, Inzitari R, Wall T, Buggy DJ: Serum NETosis expression and recurrence risk after regional or volatile anaesthesia during breast cancer surgery: A pilot, prospective, randomised single-blind clinical trial. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2021; 65: 313-9

3. Arora H, Kumar PA: Case Series of Vacuum-Assisted Thrombectomy: An Acceptable Trade-Off in Evidence-Based Methodology? J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2021; 35: 1046-8

4. Bhatia M, Kumar PA: Pro: Venoarterial ECMO Should Be Considered in Patients With COVID-19. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2021; 35: 703-6

5. Bhatia M, Kumar PA: Con: Routine Use of Fresh Frozen Plasma Should Not Be Used to Prime Cardiopulmonary Bypass Circuits During Cardiac Surgery. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2021; 35: 3122-4

6. Bravo M, Bakal O, Rivas E, Mascha EJ, Pu X, Mosteller L, Rodriguez-Patarroyo F, Essber H, AlGharrash A, Turan A: Effect of intravenous acetaminophen on mean arterial blood pressure: A post hoc analysis of the effect of intravenous acetaminophen on postoperative hypoxemia after abdominal surgery trial. Anesth Analg 2021; 133: 1532-9

7. Buggy DJ, Nolan R, Coburn M, Columb M, Hermanides J, Hollman MW, Zarbock A: Protocol for a prospective, international cohort study on the Management and Outcomes of Perioperative Care among European Diabetic Patients (MOPED). BMJ Open 2021; 11: e044394

8. Chalkias A, Mongardon N, Boboshko V, Cerny V, Constant AL, De Roux Q, Finco G, Fumagalli F, Gkamprela E, Legriel S, Lomivorotov V, Magliocca A, Makaronis P, Mamais I, Mani I, Mavridis T, Mura P, Ristagno G, Sardo S, Papagiannakis N, Xanthos T, Consortium P: Clinical practice recommendations on the management of perioperative cardiac arrest: A report from the PERIOPCA Consortium. Crit Care 2021; 25: 265

9. Chalkias A, Pantazopoulos I, Papagiannakis N, Skoulakis A, Laou E, Kolonia K, Ntalarizou N, Tourlakopoulos K, Pagonis A, Kampolis C, De Guadiana Romualdo LG, Ragias D, Eugen-Olsen J, Gourgoulianis K, Arnaoutoglou E, Investigators S: Sinus bradycardia is associated with poor outcome in critically ill patients with COVID-19 due to the B.1.1.7 Lineage. Toxicol Rep 2021; 8: 1394-8

10. Chen X, Owen CA, Huang EC, Maggard BD, Latif RK, Clifford SP, Li J, Huang J: Artificial intelligence in echocardiography for anesthesiologists. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2021; 35: 251-61

11. Chin KJ, Versyck B, Elsharkawy H, Rojas Gomez MF, Sala-Blanch X, Reina MA: Anatomical basis of fascial plane blocks. Reg Anesth Pain Med 2021; 46: 581-99

12. Chow JH, Khanna AK, Kethireddy S, Yamane D, Levine A, Jackson AM, McCurdy MT, Tabatabai A, Kumar G, Park P, Benjenk I, Menaker J, Ahmed N, Glidewell E, Presutto E, Cain S, Haridasa N, Field W, Fowler JG, Trinh D, Johnson KN, Kaur A, Lee A, Sebastian K, Ulrich A, Pena S, Carpenter R, Sudhakar S, Uppal P, Fedeles BT, Sachs A, Dahbour L, Teeter W, Tanaka K, Galvagno SM, Herr DL, Scalea TM, Mazzeffi MA: Aspirin use is associated with decreased mechanical ventilation, intensive care unit admission, and in-hospital mortality in hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019. Anesth Analg 2021; 132: 930-41

13. Chow JH, Wittwer ED, Wieruszewski PM, Khanna AK: Evaluating the evidence for angiotensin II for the treatment of vasoplegia in critically ill cardiothoracic surgery patients. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2021

14. Christensen AL, Jacobs E, Maheshwari K, Xing F, Zhao X, Simon SE, Domino KB, Posner KL, Stewart AF, Sanford JA, Sessler DI: Development and evaluation of a risk-adjusted measure of intraoperative hypotension in patients having nonemergent, noncardiac surgery. Anesth Analg 2021; 133: 445-54

15. Cohen B, Rivas E, Pu X, Maheshwari K, Araujo-Duran JA, Turan O, Volio A, Yalcin EK, Turan A: Diurnal blood pressure variation in adults after abdominal surgery-An observational cohort study. J Clin Anesth 2021; 77: 110633

16. Cutler NS, Rasmussen BM, Bredeck JF, Lata AL, Khanna AK: Angiotensin II for critically ill patients with shock after heart transplant. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2021; 35: 2756-62

17. Douin DJ, Krause M, Williams C, Tanabe K, Fernandez-Bustamante A, Quaye AN, Ginde AA, Bartels K: Corticosteroid administration and impaired glycemic control in mechanically ventilated covid-19 patients. Semin Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2021: 10892532211043313

18. Du YT, Li YW, Zhao BJ, Guo XY, Feng Y, Zuo MZ, Fu C, Zhou WJ, Li HJ, Liu YF, Cheng T, Mu DL, Zeng Y, Liu PF, Li Y, An HY, Zhu SN, Li XY, Li HJ, Wu YF, Wang DX, Sessler DI, Peking University Clinical Research Program Study Group: Long-term survival after combined epidural-general anesthesia or general anesthesia alone: Follow-up of a randomized trial. Anesthesiology 2021; 135: 233-45

19. Duarte P, Riveros-Perez E: Understanding the cycles of COVID-19 incidence: Principal Component Analysis and interaction of biological and socio-economic factors. Annals of Medicine and Surgery 2021; 66

20. Efrimescu CI, Buggy PM, Buggy DJ: Neutrophil Extracellular Trapping Role in Cancer, Metastases, and Cancer-Related Thrombosis: a Narrative Review of the Current Evidence Base. Curr Oncol Rep 2021; 23: 118

21. Elsharkawy H: The external oblique intercostal block: Anatomic evaluation and case series. Pain Medicine 2021; 22: 2436-42

22. Elsharkawy H, Ahuja S, Sessler DI, Maheshwari K, Mao G, Sakr Esa WA, Soliman LM, Ayad S, Khoshknabi D, Khan MZ, Raza S, DeGrande S, Turan A: Subcostal anterior quadratus lumborum block versus epidural block for analgesia in open nephrectomy: A randomized clinical trial. Anesth Analg 2021; 132: 1138-45

23. Essber H, Cohen B, Artis AS, Leung SM, Maheshwari K, Khan MZ, Sessler DI, Turan A, Ruetzler K: Renal injury after open versus laparoscopic non-cardiac surgery: a retrospective cohort analysis. Braz J Anesthesiol 2021; 71: 50-7

24. Evered LA, Chan MTV, Han R, Chu MHM, Cheng BP, Scott DA, Pryor KO, Sessler DI, Veselis R, Frampton C, Sumner M, Ayeni A, Myles PS, Campbell D, Leslie K, Short TG: Anaesthetic depth and delirium after major surgery: a randomised clinical trial. Br J Anaesth 2021; 127: 704-12

25. Farag E, Rivas E, Bravo M, Hussain S, Argalious M, Khanna S, Seif J, Pu X, Mao G, Bain M, Elgabaly M, Esa WAS, Sessler DI: Sugammadex versus neostigmine for reversal of rocuronium neuromuscular block in patients having catheter-based neurointerventional procedures: A randomized trial. Anesthesia & Analgesia 2021; 132: 1666-76

26. Farragher J, Pranata A, El-Ansary D, Parry S, Williams G, Royse C, Royse A, O'Donohue M, Bryant A: Reliability of lumbar multifidus and iliocostalis lumborum thickness and echogenicity measurements using ultrasound imaging. Australas J Ultrasound Med 2021; 24: 151-60

27. Flick M, Briesenick L, Peine S, Scheeren TWL, Duranteau J, Saugel B: The effect of moderate intraoperative blood loss and norepinephrine therapy on sublingual microcirculatory perfusion in patients having open radical prostatectomy: An observational study. Eur J Anaesthesiol 2021; 38: 459-67

28. Flick M, Matin Mehr J, Briesenick L, Hoppe P, Kouz K, Vokuhl C, Flotzinger D, Lerche K, Saugel B: Agreement between continuous noninvasive finger cuff-derived and invasive arterial blood pressure measurements: Effect of data sampling and data processing. Eur J Anaesthesiol 2021; 38: 616-24

29. Flick M, Schumann R, Hoppe P, Bonney I, Wesselink W, Saugel B: Non-invasive measurement of pulse pressure variation using a finger-cuff method in obese patients having laparoscopic bariatric surgery. J Clin Monit Comput 2021; 35: 1341-7

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129. Tire Y, Yazar MA, Erdem SS: Can changes in platelet count, mean platelet volume, and platelet distribution width be used to determine the severity of COVID-19? Medical Science and Discovery 2021; 8: 581-5

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Published editorials

1. Ahuja S, Luedi MM: Too little or too much anesthesia: Age paradox of electroencephalogram indices (editorial). J Clin Anesth 2021; 73: 110358

2. Bartels K, Lobato RL, Bradley CJ: Risk scores to improve quality and realize health economic gains in perioperative care (editorial). Anesth Analg 2021; 133: 606-9

3. Buggy DJ, Riedel B, Sessler DI: Can anaesthetic technique influence cancer outcome? The next steps (editorial). Br J Anaesth 2021; 127: 5-7

4. Flick M, Kouz K, Chew MS, Saugel B: Haemodynamic monitoring in circulatory shock - in a nutshell (editorial). Anaesth Crit Care Pain Med 2021; 41: 101003

5. Flick M, Saugel B: The surgical patient (editorial). Curr Opin Crit Care 2021; 27: 668-9

6. Goeller JK, Bartels K: Improving prediction to prevent perioperative morbidity (editorial). Br J Anaesth 2021; 127: 671-4

7. Khanna AK, Gan TJ: Myocardial injury after noncardiac surgery-slightly heavier may be better (editorial). Anesth Analg 2021; 132: 957-9

8. Khanna AK, Karamchandani K: Macrocirculation and microcirculation: The “Batman and Superman" story of critical care resuscitation (editorial). Anesth Analg 2021; 132: 280-3

9. Maheshwari K: Blood pressure stability: a road to better outcomes (editorial). J Clin Monit Comput 2021; 35: 679-80

10. Onal M, Onal O, Turan A: Can secondary lymphoid organs exert a favorable effect on the mild course of COVID-19 in children? (Editorial). Acta Otolaryngol 2021; 141: 83-4

11. Sessler DI: (Im)precise trial descriptions (editorial). Br J Anaesth 2021; 127: 824-5

12. Sessler DI, Short T: Intraoperative hypotension and complications (editorial). J Am Coll Cardiol 2021; 78: 1765-7

13. Sharma V, Sessler DI, Hausenloy DJ: The role of routine postoperative troponin measurement in the diagnosis and management of myocardial injury after non-cardiac surgery (editorial). Anaesthesia 2021; 76: 11-4